The paper aims to demonstrate that the uses of these insurance companies can be unfair as the size and benefits of an organization characterize their insurances options.
In Februaryscientists revised the estimate of the magnitude to 9. A study estimated a magnitude of Mw 9. This quickly elevated the height and increased the speed of waves, destroying the nearby Indonesian town of Lhoknga.
The Sumatra earthquake is believed to have been Handling natural disasters tsunami foreshockpreceding the main event by over two years. Their seismic moments can account for a significant fraction of the global seismic moment across century-scale time periods. Of all the moment released by earthquakes in the years from throughroughly one-eighth was due to the Indian Ocean earthquake.
This quake, together with the Good Friday earthquake Alaskaand the Great Chilean earthquakeaccount for almost half of the total moment. Sincethe only earthquakes recorded with a greater magnitude were the Great Chilean earthquake Magnitude 9.
The only other recorded earthquakes of magnitude 9. Each of these megathrust earthquakes also spawned tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean. However, in comparison to the Indian Ocean earthquake, the death toll from these earthquakes was significantly lower, primarily because of the lower population density along the coasts near affected areas, the much greater distances to more populated coasts, and the superior infrastructure and warning systems in MEDCs More Economically Developed Countries such as Japan.
All of them are believed to be greater than magnitude 9, but no accurate measurements were available at the time. Plate tectonics Epicenter and associated aftershocks The Indian Ocean earthquake was unusually large in geographical and geological extent.
The slip did not happen Handling natural disasters tsunami but took place in two phases over several minutes: The rupture proceeded at about 2. However, the northern rupture occurred more slowly than in the south, at about 2. The Indian Plate is part of the great Indo-Australian Platewhich underlies the Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengaland is moving north-east at an average of 6 centimetres per year 2.
The India Plate sinks deeper and deeper beneath the Burma Plate until the increasing temperature and pressure drive volatiles out of the subducting plate. These volatiles rise into the overlying plate, causing partial melting and the formation of magma.
The rising magma intrudes into the crust above and exits the Earth's crust through volcanoes in the form of a volcanic arc. As well as the sideways movement between the plates, the Indian Ocean earthquake resulted in a rise of the sea floor by several metres, displacing an estimated 30 cubic kilometres 7.
This greatly increased the geographical area over which the waves were observed, reaching as far as Mexico, Chile, and the Arctic.
The raising of the sea floor significantly reduced the capacity of the Indian Ocean, producing a permanent rise in the global sea level by an estimated 0. List of earthquakes in Indonesia and List of earthquakes in Initial earthquake and aftershocks measuring greater than 4.
Other aftershocks of up to magnitude 6. A week after the earthquake, its reverberations could still be measured, providing valuable scientific data about the Earth's interior. The Indian Ocean earthquake came just three days after a magnitude 8.
This is unusual, since earthquakes of magnitude 8 or more occur only about once per year on average. Geological Survey sees no evidence of a causal relationship between these events.
This energy is equivalent to over 1, times that of the Hiroshima atomic bombbut less than that of Tsar Bombathe largest nuclear weapon ever detonated; however, the total physical work done MW and thus energy by the quake was 4. The only recorded earthquakes with a larger MW were the Chilean and Alaskan quakes, with 2.
The seismic waves of the earthquake were felt across the planet; as far away as the U. The seismograms are arranged vertically by distance from the epicenter in degrees.
A major aftershock magnitude 7. The aftershock would be considered a major earthquake under ordinary circumstances but is dwarfed by the mainshock.
The shift of mass and the massive release of energy slightly altered the Earth's rotation.
The exact amount is not yet known, but theoretical models suggest the earthquake shortened the length of a day by 2. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands appear to have shifted south-west by around 1. The survey, conducted using a high-resolution, multi-beam sonar system, revealed that the earthquake had made a huge impact on the topography of the seabed.
An oceanic trench several kilometres wide was exposed in the earthquake zone. Measurements from these satellites may prove invaluable for the understanding of the earthquake and tsunami.
A tsunami that causes damage far away from its source is sometimes called a teletsunami and is much more likely to be produced by vertical motion of the seabed than by horizontal motion.Natural Disasters; Contact Us.
Share. A tsunami can strike violently and with little warning. Once a warning is issued there may be little time to prepare other than getting to a safe location. For water and wastewater facilities: Suggested activities to .
The earthquake and tsunami combined is the world's deadliest natural disaster since the Tangshan earthquake. The earthquake was the third most powerful earthquake recorded since The earthquake was the third most powerful earthquake recorded since Natural Disasters and Severe Weather Tsunami-Related Information for Clinicians.
Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir. General Information. Health Effects of Tsunamis. Immediate, secondary, & long-lasting effects. Mental Health. Disaster Mental Health Resources; Handling .
Natural disasters in Indonesia can usefully be divided into major disasters, medium level disasters, and lesser disasters which although causing less damage are very common across Indonesia. These can conveniently be considered as macro, mezzo, and micro events.
Most expensive natural disasters for the insurance industry worldwide from to (in billion U.S. dollars) Most expensive natural disasters for the insurance industry worldwide GUIDE TO EDUCATION IN NATURAL DISASTERS: HOW USAID SUPPORTS EDUCATION IN CRISES.
An emergency can include natural disasters such as earthquakes, landslides, storms, droughts, tsunamis or floods, conflict, or internal displacement due to civil wars or conflict (Global Education Cluster, ).